Cerebrovascular Conditions

Cerebrovascular conditions refer to a group of health problems that affect the blood vessels in the brain. These conditions can lead to disruptions in blood flow, potentially causing damage to brain tissue and resulting in various neurological symptoms. Understanding these conditions and their symptoms is crucial for early detection and prompt treatment.


The symptoms of cerebrovascular conditions can vary depending on the specific issue and the area of the brain affected. Common symptoms may include:

  • Sudden Severe Headache:
    A sudden, intense headache, often described as the “worst headache of my life.”
  • Weakness or Numbness:
    Sudden weakness or numbness, usually on one side of the body.
  • Difficulty Speaking or Understanding Speech:
    Slurred speech or difficulty understanding others.
  • Vision Changes:
    Blurred or double vision, or loss of vision in one or both eyes.
  • Trouble Walking or Loss of Balance: Difficulty walking or maintaining balance.
  • Confusion or Disorientation:
    Feeling confused or disoriented, especially with simple tasks.
  • Dizziness or Vertigo:
    Feeling lightheaded or experiencing a spinning sensation.

It’s important to note that the symptoms of cerebrovascular conditions can mimic other conditions, and experiencing these symptoms does not necessarily mean you have a cerebrovascular issue. However, if you or someone else experiences these symptoms suddenly and severely, it may be a medical emergency, and you should seek immediate medical attention.

Common neurosurgical cerebrovascular conditions

  • Brain Aneurysms: 
    A brain aneurysm is a weakened and bulging area in the wall of a brain artery. It has the potential to rupture, leading to a life-threatening condition known as a subarachnoid haemorrhage. Neurosurgical procedures, such as clipping or coiling, are used to secure the aneurysm and prevent rupture.
  • Arteriovenous Malformations (AVMs): 
    AVMs are tangles of abnormal blood vessels in the brain that can disrupt blood flow and cause seizures or bleeding. Neurosurgery may involve removing the AVM surgically or using endovascular techniques like embolization.
  • Cavernous Malformations: 
    Cavernous malformations are clusters of dilated blood vessels that can lead to bleeding in the brain. Neurosurgical intervention is considered when symptoms or recurrent bleeds occur, and the malformation’s location is surgically accessible.
  • Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas (DAVF): 
    DAVFs are abnormal connections between arteries and veins within the dura, the outer covering of the brain. Neurosurgery, endovascular embolization, or stereotactic radiosurgery may be used to treat DAVFs, depending on the case.
  • Moyamoya Disease: 
    Moyamoya disease is a rare condition characterized by the narrowing of blood vessels at the base of the brain. Revascularization procedures, such as direct or indirect bypass surgery, are performed to restore blood flow and prevent strokes.
  • Carotid Artery Disease: 
    Carotid artery disease involves the narrowing or blockage of the carotid arteries, which supply blood to the brain. Carotid endarterectomy or carotid artery stenting are neurosurgical procedures used to remove plaque build-up and restore blood flow.